James Tidball

James                          Tidball                       Email: jtidball@physci.ucla.edu
Phone: (310) 206-3395
Address: 1135 TLSB
Research Interests: Pathophysiological mechanisms in muscular dystrophy

Research Interests:

Research in the Tidball lab is directed toward understanding processes that regulate skeletal muscle wasting and regeneration. Exploring the mechanisms through which the immune system can modulate skeletal muscle wasting, injury, regeneration and growth is a particular focus of the lab. Discoveries in the Tidball lab over the past 20 years have shown that immune cells, especially myeloid cells, play a major role in modulating muscle injury and repair that occur in chronic, muscle wasting diseases and following acute injuries. For example, their findings have shown that macrophages and eosinophils are key effector cells in the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Ongoing investigations in the lab are revealing the identity of specific molecules released by myeloid cells that promote muscular dystrophy. However, recent findings in the lab have also shown that regulatory interactions between cytotoxic, M1 macrophages in dystrophic muscle and anti-inflammatory, M2a macrophages are important in regulating the balance between the death of dystrophic muscle and regenerative processes. This work shows that the experimental manipulation of the balance between the functions of M1 and M2a macrophages can affect the severity of muscular dystrophy, suggesting that manipulation of macrophage phenotype in vivo may have potential therapeutic value for the treatment of the disease. Other investigations in the Tidball lab concern the proteolytic mechanisms that contribute to sarcopenia, the process through which muscle wasting occurs during the aging process. The Tidball lab uses proteomic approaches to identify specific, key substrates in proteolytic cascades that lead to muscle wasting. Subsequent experimentation relies on genetic manipulations designed to disrupt the cascades, with the goal of reducing sarcopenia. Identification of the mechanisms through which pro-inflammatory, Th1 cytokines can modulate muscle wasting during aging by influencing the state of activation proteases that drive muscle wasting is also major component of the sarcopenia investigations in the Tidball lab.


Deng, B., Wehling-Henricks, M., Villalta, S.A., Wang, Y. and J.G. Tidball (2012). IL-10 triggers changes in macrophage phenotype that promote muscle growth and regeneration J. Immunol 189: 3669-3680

Tidball, J.G. and C. Rinaldi (2012). Immunological responses to muscle injury Muscle 909-919

Foster, W.H., J.G. Tidball and Y Wang (2012). p38γ activity is required for maintenance of slow skeletal muscle size Muscle & Nerve 45: 266-273

Villalta, S.A., Deng, B., Rinaldi, C., Wehling-Henricks, M. and J. G. Tidball (2011). IFNγ promotes muscle damage in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy by suppressing M2 macrophage activation and inhibiting muscle cell proliferation J. Immunol 187: 5419-5428

Wehling-Henricks, M. and J.G. Tidball (2011). Neuronal nitric oxide synthase-rescue of dystrophin/utrophin double knockout mice does not require nNOS localization to the cell membrane J. Immunol 6: e25071-

Sakellariou, G.K., Pye, D., Vasilaki, A., Zibrik, L., Palomero, J., Kabayo, T., McArdle, F., Van Remmen, H., Richardson, A., Tidball, J.G., McArdle, A. and M. J. Jackson (2011). Role of superoxide-nitric oxide interactions in the accelerated age-related loss of muscle mass in mice lacking Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase J. Immunol 10: 749-760

Villalta, S.A., Rinaldi, C., Deng, B., Liu, G., Fedor, B. and J. G. Tidball (2011). Interleukin-10 reduces the pathology of mdx muscular dystrophy by deactivating M1 macrophages and modulating macrophage phenotype Human Molecular Genetics 20: 790-805

Tidball, J.G (2011). Mechanisms of muscle injury, repair and regeneration Comprehensive Physiology 1: 2029-2062

Wehling-Henricks, M., M. C. Jordan, T. Gotoh, W. W. Grody, K. P. Roos and J. G. Tidball (2010). Arginine metabolism by macrophages promotes cardiac and muscle fibrosis in mdx muscular dystrophy PLoS One e10763: doi:10.137-

Tidball, J.G. and S.A. Villalta (2010). Regulatory interactions between muscle and the immune system during muscle regeneration Amer. J. Physiol 298: 1173-1187

Villalta, S.A., H.X. Nguyen, B. Deng, T. Gotoh and J.G. Tidball. (2009). Shifts in macrophage phenotypes and macrophage competition for arginine metabolism affect the severity of muscle pathology in muscular dystrophy Amer. J. Physiol 18: 482-496

Tidball, J.G. and M. Wehling-Henricks. (2009). Inflammatory mechanisms in genetic neuromuscular disorders Inflammatory and autoimmune disorders of the nervous system in children 453-477

Tidball, J.G. and S.A. Villalta (2009). NO may prompt calcium leakage in dystrophic muscle Nature Medicine 15: 243-244

Wehling-Henricks, M., M. Oltmann, C. Rinaldi, K. H. Myung, and J. G. Tidball. (2009). Loss of positive allosteric interactions between neuronal nitric oxide synthase and phosphofructokinase contributes to defects in glycolysis and increased fatigability in muscular dystrophy Nature Medicine 18: 3439-3451

Deng, B., D. Glanzman and J.G. Tidball. (2009). Nitric oxide generated by muscle corrects defects in hippocampal neurogenesis and neural differentiation caused by muscular dystrophy Journal of Physiology (London) 587: 1769-1778

Perez, A.L., E. Bachrach, B.M. Illigens, S.J. Jun, E. Bagden, L. Steffen, A. Flint, F.X. McGowan, P. Del Nido, E. Montecino-Rodriguez, J.G. Tidball and L.M. Kunkel. (2009). CXCR4 enhances engraftment of muscle progenitor cells Muscle & Nerve 18: 562-572

Wehling-Henricks, M., Sokolow, S., Lee, J.J., Myung, K.H., Villalta, S.A., and J.G. Tidball (2008). Major basic protein-1 promotes fibrosis of dystrophic muscle and attenuates the cellular immune response in muscular dystrophy Muscle & Nerve 17: 2280-2292

Hao, M., K. Akrami, K. Wei, C. De Diego, N. Che, J.H. Ku, J.G. Tidball, M.C. Graves, P.B. Shieh and F. Chen. (2008). Muscleblind-like 2 (Mbnl2)-deficient mice as a model for myotonic dystrophy Developmental Dynamics 237: 403-410

Tidball, J.G. (2008). Inflammation in skeletal muscle regeneration Skeletal muscle repair and regeneration 243-267

Pfister, K., J. Radons, R. Busch, J.G. Tidball, M. Pfeifer, L. Freitag, H-J. Feldmann, V. Milani, R. Issels and G. Multhoff. (2007). Patient survival by Hsp70 membrane-phenotype: association with different routes of metastasis Skeletal muscle repair and regeneration 110: 926-935

Acharyya, S., S.A. Villalta, N. Bakkar, T. Bupha-Intr, P.M.L. Janssen, M. Carathers, Z. Li, A. Beg, S. Ghosh, Z. Sahenk, M. Weinstein, K.L. Gardner, J.A. Rafael-Fortney, M. Karin, J.G. Tidball, A.S. Baldwin and D.C. Guttridge (2007). IKK/NF-kB signaling interplay in macrophages and myofibers promotes muscle wasting in Duchenne muscular dystrophy J. Clin. Invest 117: 889-901

Tidball, J.G. and M. Wehling-Henricks (2007). Macrophages promote muscle membrane repair and muscle fibre growth and regeneration during modified muscle loading in mice in vivo Journal of Physiology (Lond.) 578.1: 327-336

Tidball, J.G. and M. Wehling-Henricks (2005). Damage and inflammation in muscular dystrophy: potential implications and relationships to autoimmune myositis Current Opinion in Rheumatology 17: 707-713

Wehling-Henricks, M., M.C. Jordan, K.P. Roos, B. Deng and J.G. Tidball (2005). Cardiomyopathy in dystrophin-deficient hearts is prevented by expression of a neuronal nitric oxide synthase transgene in the myocardium Human Molecular Genetics 14: 1921-1933

Nguyen, H.X., A.J. Lusis and J.G. Tidball (2005). Null mutation of myeloperoxidase in mice prevents mechanical activation of neutrophil lysis of muscle cell membranes in vitro and in vivo Journal of Physiology (Lond.) 565.2: 403-413

Tidball, J.G. (2005). Mechanical signal transduction in skeletal muscle growth and adaptation Journal of Applied Physiology 98: 1900-1908

Wehling-Hendricks, M., J.J. Lee and J.G. Tidball (2004). Prednisolone decreases cellular adhesion molecules required for inflammatory cell infiltration in dystrophia-deficient muscle Neuromuscular Disorders 14: 483-490

Kramerova, I., E. Kudryashova, J.G. Tidball, and M.J. Spencer (2004). Null mutation of calpain 3 (p94) in mice causes abnormal sarcomere formation in vivo and in vitro Human Molecular Genetics 13: 1373-1388

Tidball, J.G. and M. Wehling-Henricks (2004). Expression of a NOS transgene in dystrophin-deficient muscle reduces muscle membrane damage without increasing the expression of membrane-associated cytoskeletal proteins Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 82: 312-320

Shiao, T., A. Fond, B. Deng, M. Wehling-Henricks, M.E. Adams, S.C. Froehner, and J. G. Tidball. (2004). Defects in neuromuscular junction structure in dystrophic muscle are corrected by expression of a NOS transgene in dystrophin-deficient muscles, but not in muscles lacking alpha- and beta-1-syntrophins Human Molecular Genetics 13: 1873-1884

Tidball, J.G. and M.J. Spencer. (2003). Skipping to new gene therapies for muscular dystrophy Nature Medicine 9: 997-998

Cheung, E.V. and J.G. Tidball. (2003). Administration of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen increases macrophage concentrations but reduces necrosis during modified muscle use Inflam. Res 52: 170-176

Nguyen, H.X. and J.G. Tidball (2003). Interactions between neutrophils and macrophages promote macrophage killing of muscle cells in vitro J. Physiol. (Lond) 547: 125-132

Nguyen, H.X. and J.G. Tidball. (2003). Expression of a muscle-specific, nitric oxide synthase transgene prevents muscle membrane injury and reduces muscle inflammation during modified muscle use J. Physiol. (Lond) 550: 347-356

Kyckelhahn, B.A., P.B. Nason, J.G. Tidball J.G, and A.M. Boriek. (2003). Kinematic modeling of single muscle fiber during diaphragm shortening J. Biomech 36: 457-461

Tidball, J.G. (2002). Interactions between muscle and the immune system during modified musculoskeletal loading Clinical Orthop 403S: 100-109

Tidball, J.G. and M.J.Spencer. (2002). Expression of a calpastatin transgene slows muscle wasting and obviates changes in myosin isoform expression during murine muscle disuse J. Physiol. (Lond) 545: 819-828

Spencer, M.J. and J.G. Tidball. (2001). Do immune cells promote the pathology of dystrophin-deficient myopathies? Neuromuscular Disorders 11: 556-564

Wehling, M., M.J. Spencer, and J.G. Tidball. (2001). A nitric oxide synthase transgene ameliorates muscular dystrophy in mdx mice J. Cell Biol 155: 123-131

Spencer, M.J., E. Montecino-Rodriguez, K. Dorshkind and J.G. Tidball. (2001). Helper (CD4+) and cytotoxic (CD8+) T cells promote the pathology of dystrophin-deficient muscle Clinical Immunology 98: 235-243

Boriek, A.M., Y. Capetanaki, W. Hwang, T. Officer, M. Badshah, J. Rodarte and J. G. Tidball. (2001). Desmin integrates the three-dimensional mechanical properties of muscles Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol 280: C46-52

Koh, T.J. and J.G. Tidball. (2000). Nitric oxide inhibits calpain-mediated proteolysis of talin in skeletal muscle cells Amer. J. Physiol. (Cell Physiol.) 279: 806-812

Zhu, X., M. Hadhazy, M. Wehling, J.G. Tidball and E.M McNally. (2000). Dominant negative myostatin produces hypertrophy without hyperplasia in muscle FEBS Lttrs 474: 71-75

Frenette, J., B. Cai and J.G. Tidball. (2000). Complement activation promotes muscle inflammation during modified muscle use Amer. J. Pathol 156: 2103-2110

Wehling, M., B. Cai and J.G. Tidball. (2000). Modulation of myostatin expression during modified muscle use FASEB J 14: 103-110

Cai, B., M. J. Spencer, G. Nakamura, L. Tseng-Ong and J.G. Tidball. (2000). Eosinophilia of dystrophin-deficient muscle is promoted by perforin-mediated cytotoxicity by T-cell effectors Amer. J. Pathol 156: 1789-1796

Tidball, J.G. and M.J. Spencer. (2000). Calpains and muscular dystrophies Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol 32: 1-5

Tidball, J.G., E. Berchenko and J. Frenette. (1999). Macrophage invasion does not contribute to muscle membrane injury during inflammation J. Leukocyte Biol 65: 492-498

Koh, T.J. and J.G. Tidball. (1999). Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors reduce sarcomere addition in rat skeletal muscle J. Physiol. (Lond) 519: 189-196

Tidball, J. G. M. J. Spencer, M. Wehling and E. Lavergne. (1999). Nitric oxide synthase is a mechanical signal transducer that modulates talin and vinculin expression J. Biol. Chem 274: 33155-33160

Tidball, J.G. and D.A. Albrecht (1998). Regulation of apoptosis by cellular interactions with the extracellular matrix When Cells Die: A Comprehesive Evaluation of Apoptosis and Programmed Cell Death 411-427

Wehling, M., J.T. Stull, T.J. McCabe and J.G. Tidball. (1998). Sparing of mdx extraocular muscles from dystrophic pathology is not attributable to normalized concentration or distribution of neuronal nitric oxide synthase Neuromuscular Disorders 8: 22-29

Pizza, F. X., I.J. Hernandez and J.G. Tidball. (1998). Nitric oxide synthase inhibition reduces muscle inflammation and necrosis in modified muscle use J. Leukocyte Biol 64: 427-433

Frenette, J. and J.G. Tidball. (1998). Mechanical loading regulates the expression of talin and its mRNA which are concentrated at myotendinous junctions Amer. Physiol. Soc 275: 818-825

Tidball, J.G., E. Lavergne, K. S. Lau, M. J. Spencer, J. T. Stull and M. Wehling. (1998). Mechanical loading regulates nitric oxide synthase expression and activity in developing and adult skeletal muscle Amer. Physiol. Soc 275: 260-266

Albrecht, D.A. and J.G. Tidball (1997). PDGF stimulated secretion of basement membrane proteins by skeletal muscle occurs by tyrosine kinase dependent and independent pathways J. Biol. Chem 272: 2236-2244

Spencer, M.J., C.M. Walsh, K.A. Dorshkind, E. Montecino-Rodriguez and J.G. Tidball. (1997). Myonuclear apoptosis in dystrophic mdx muscle occurs by perforin-mediated cytotoxicity J. Clin. Invest 99: 2745-2751

Spencer, M.J., B. Lu and J. G. Tidball (1997). Calpain II expression is increased by changes in mechanical loading of muscle in vivo J. Cell Biochem 64: 55-66

Spencer, M.J., J.G. Tidball, L.V.B. Anderson, K.M.D. Bushby, J.B. Harris, M.R. Passos-Bueno, H. Somer, M. Vainzof and M. Zatz (1997). Absence of calpain 3 in a form of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2A) J. Neurol. Sci 146: 173-178

Chang, W-J., S.T. Iannaccone, K.S. Lau, B.S.S. Masters, T.J. McCabe, K. McMillan, R.C. Padre, M.J. Spencer, J.G. Tidball and J.T. Stull (1996). Neuronal nitric oxide synthase and dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 93: 9142-9147

Spencer, M.J. and J.G. Tidball. (1996). Calpain translocation during muscle fiber necrosis and regeneration in dystrophin-deficient mice Exper. Cell Res 226: 264-272

Tidball, J.G. and B.A. St. Pierre (1996). Apoptosis of macrophages during the resolution of muscle inflammation J. Leukocyte Biol 59: 380-388

Spencer, M.J., D.E. Croall and J.G. Tidball. (1995). Calpains are activated in necrotic fibers from mdx dystrophic mice J. Biol. Chem 270: 10909-10914

Tidball, J.G., D.E. Albrecht, B.E., Lokensgard and M.J. Spencer (1995). Apoptosis precedes necrosis of dystrophin-deficient muscle J. Cell Sci 108: 2197-2204

Tidball, J.G. (1995). Inflammatory cell response to acute muscle injury Med. Sci. Sports Exer 27: 1022-1032

Murray, E.J.B., K. K-T. Tram, M.J. Spencer, J.G. Tidball, S.S Murray and D.B.N. Lee (1995). PTH-mediated osteoblast retraction: possible participation of the calpain pathway Miner. Electrolyte Metab 21: 184-188

Law, D.J., A. Caputo and J.G. Tidball (1995). Site and mechanics of failure in normal and dystrophin-deficient Skeletal muscle Muscle & Nerve 18: 216-223

Ridge, J.C., J.G. Tidball, K. Ahl, D.J. Law and W.L. Rickoll. (1994). Modifications in myotendinous junction surface morphology in dystrophin-deficient mouse muscle Exp. Molec. Pathol 61: 58-68

St. Pierre, B.A. and J.G. Tidball. (1994). Macrophage activation and muscle remodeling at myotendinous junctions after modifications in muscle loading Amer. J. Pathol 145: 1463-1471

St. Pierre, B.A. and J.G. Tidball. (1994). Differential response of macrophage subpopulations to soleus muscle reloading after rat hindlimb suspension Am. Physiol. Soc 77: 290-297

Law, D.J., D.L. Allen and J.G. Tidball. (1994). Talin, vinculin, and DRP (utrophin) concentrations are increased at mdx myotendinous junctions following onset of necrosis J. Cell Sci 107: 1477-1483

Tidball, J.G. (1994). Assembly of myotendinous junctions in the chick embryo: Deposition of P68 is an early event in myotendinous junction formation Devel. Biol 163: 447-456

Tram, K., M. Spencer, S.S. Murray, D.B.N. Lee, J.G. Tidball and E.J.B. Murray. (1993). Identification of calcium-activated neutral protease activity and its regulation by parathyroid hormone in mouse osteoblastic cells Biochem. Molec. Biol. Internat 29: 981-987

Tidball, J.G., G. Salem and R. Zernicke (1993). Site and mechanical conditions for failure of skeletal muscle in experimental strain injuries J. Appl. Physiol 74: 1280-1286

Law, D.J. and J.G. Tidball (1993). Dystrophin deficiency is associated with myotendinous junction defects in prenecrotic and fully regenerated skeletal muscle Amer. J. Pathol 142: 1513-1523

Tidball, J.G. and M.J. Spencer. (1993). PDGF stimulation induces phosphorylation of talin and cytoskeletal reorganization in skeletal muscle J. Cell Biol 123: 627-635

Tidball, J.G. and K.L. Andolina. (1992). Structure and protein composition of sites of papillary muscle attachment to chordae tendineae in avian hearts Cell Tissue Res 270: 527-533

Tidball, J.G. (1992). Identification and distribution of a novel, collagen-binding protein in the developing subepicardium and endomysium J. Biol. Chem 267: 21211-21219

Tidball, J.G., M.J. Spencer and B.A. St. Pierre. (1992). PDGF-receptor concentration is elevated in regenerative muscle fibers in dystrophin-deficient muscle Exp. Cell Res 203: 141-149

Spencer, M.J. and J.G. Tidball. (1992). Calpain concentration is elevated although net calcium-dependent proteolysis is suppressed in dystrophin-deficient muscle Exp. Cell Res 203: 107-114

Law, D.J. and J.G. Tidball. (1992). Identification of a putative collagen-binding protein from chicken skeletal muscle as glycogen phosphorylase Biochem. Biophys. Acta 1122: 225-233

Tidball, J.G. and D.M. Quan. (1992). Modifications in myotendinous junction structure following denervation Acta Neuropath 84: 135-140

Tidball, J.G. and D.M. Quan. (1992). Reduction in myotendinous junction surface area in plantaris muscle of rats subjected to four-day spaceflight J. Appl. Physiol 73: 59-64

Tidball, J.G. (1992). Desmin at myotendinous junctions Exp. Cell Res 199: 206-212

Tidball, J.G., L. Latus and J. Weckerle. (1992). Developmental modulation of embryonic cardiac myocyte adhesion to cardiac collagens in vitro Exp. Cell Res 199: 341-348

Tidball, J.G. (1992). Distribution of collagens and fibronectin in the subepicardium during avian cardiac development Anat. Embryol 185: 155-162

Tidball, J.G. (1991). Force transmission across muscle cell membranes J. Biomech 24 (Suppl.): 43-52

Tidball, J.G., J.E. Cederdahl and D.M. Bers. (1991). Quantitative analysis of regional variability in the distribution of transverse tubules in rabbit myocardium Cell Tissue Res 264: 293-298

Tidball, J.G. (1991). Myotendinous junction injury in relation to junction structure and molecular composition Exer. Sport Sci. Rev 19: 419-446

Tidball, J.G. and D.J. Law. (1991). Dystrophin is required for normal thin filament-membrane associations at myotendinous junctions Amer. J. Pathol 138: 17-21

Tidball, J.G. Myonexin (1990). Myonexin: an 80 kD glycoprotein that binds fibronectin and is located at embryonic myotendinous junctions Devel. Biol 142: 103-114

Tidball, J.G. and M. Chan. (1989). Adhesive strength of single muscle cells to basement membrane at myotendinous junctions Amer. Physiol. Soc 67: 1063-1069

Tidball, J.G. and C. Lin. (1989). Structural changes at the myogenic cell surface during the formation of myotendinous junctions Cell Tissue Res 257: 77-84

Tidball, J.G. and M.V. Gadus. (1988). Cytochemical, histological and phylogenetic distribution of a 38,000-Dalton protein associated with transverse tubules J. Cell. Biochem 38: 99-112

Tidball, J.G., R. Smith, M.J. Shattock and D.M. Bers. (1988). Differences in action potential configuration in ventricular trabeculae correlate with differences in density of transverse tubule - sarcoplasmic reticulum couplings J. Molec. Cell. Cardiol 20: 539-546

Tidball, J.G. (1988). Identification of an 80 kDa glycoprotein located at sites of close apposition between skeletal muscle cells Eur. J. Cell Biol 46: 161-167

Garrett, W. and J.G. Tidball (1988). Structure, loading and failure at muscle-tendon junctions Injury and Repair of the Musculoskeletal Soft Tissues 171-207

Shattock, M.J., K.C. Warner, J.G. Tidball and D.M. Bers. (1987). Two different electro-physiological responses to ryanodine: Evidence for two populations of muscles isolated from the rabbit right ventricle J. Molec. Cell. Cardiol 19: 751-762

Tidball, J.G. (1987). Alpha-actinin is absent from terminal segments of myofibrils and from subsarcolemmal densities in frog-skeletal muscle Exp. Cell Res 170: 469-482

Tidball, J.G. (1986). Energy stored and dissipated in skeletal muscle basement membranes during sinusoidal oscillations Biophys. J 50: 1127-1138

Tidball, J.G., T.O'Halloran and K. Burridge. (1986). Talin at myotendinous junctions J. Cell Biol 103: 1465-1472

Tidball, J.G. and T.L. Daniel. (1986). Myotendinous junctions of tonic muscle cells: Structure and loading Cell. Tissue Res 245: 315-322

Tidball, J.G. and T.L. Daniel. (1986). Elastic energy storage in rigored skeletal muscle cells under physiological loading conditions Amer. Physiol. Soc 250: R: 56-64

Tidball, J.G. (1985). Changes in skeletal chemistry and skeletogenic cell ultrastructure between young and old sites on axial skeletons Comp. Biochem. Physiol 81B: 827-831

Tidball, J.G. (1984). Cnidaria: The secreted surface The Biology of the Integument. Vol. I 69-78

Tidball, J.G. (1984). Myotendinous junction: Morphological changes and mechanical failure associated with muscle cell atrophy Exp. Molec. Pathol 40: 1-12

Tidball, J.G. (1983). The geometry of actin filament-membrane associations can modify adhesive strength at the myotendinous junction Cell Motil 3: 439-447

Tidball, J.G. (1982). Fine structural aspects of anthozoan desmocyte development Tissue and Cell 14: 85-96

Tidball, J.G. (1982). An ultrastructural and cytochemical analysis of the cellular basis for the tyrosine-derived collagen crosslinks in Leptogorgia virgulata (Cnidaria: Gorgonacea) Cell Tissue Res 222: 635-645

Tidball, J.G. (1981). Lipoprotein secretion during the formation of the axial skeleton of Leptogorgia virgulata (Cnidaria: Gorgonacea) Cell Tissue Res 219: 327-338

Ball, A.K., J.G. Tidball and D.H. Dickson. (1981). An alternative to the flat substrate method of preparing electron microscope autoradiographs Stain Technol 56: 239-245

Tidball, J.G. (1980). The fine structure of the "gorgonin" secreting cells of the gorgonian coral Leptogorgia virgulata Developmental and Cellular Biology of Coelenterates 197-202

Brenchley, G.A. and J.G. Tidball. (1980). Tube-cap orientations of Diopatra cuprea (Bosc.) (Polychaeta): The compromise between physiology and foraging Mar. Behav. Physiol 7: 1-13